List of References for the NTI Reader Dictionary

Please also see pages General Chinese references and Fo Guang Shan References.

  1. Access to Insight. 2005. “Anguttara Nikaya: The Further-Factored Discourses.”, accessed 2016-04-06.
  2. Access to Insight. 2016. “Digha Nikaya: The Long Discourses.” Accessed April 24.
  3. Anālayo 2006, The Saṃyukta-Āgama Parallel to the Sāleyyaka-Sutta and the Potential of the Ten Courses of Action, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, Vol. 13.
  4. Anesaki, M. 1908. “The Four Buddhist Āgamas in Chinese: A Concordance of Their Parts and of the Corresponding Counterparts in the Pāli Nikāya.” Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, volume 35.
  5. Aśvaghoṣa and Hakeda YS 2006, The Awakening of Faith: Attributed to Aśvaghoṣha, Translations from the Asian classics, Columbia University Press, New York.
  6. Bak, Hanyeong 2017, An Anthology of East Asian Commentaries on the Nyāyapraveśa, Translated by Ham Hyoung Seok, South Korea: Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.
  7. Bingenheimer, Marcus 2021, “Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages,” February 23, at
  8. Blum, Mark 2007, The Nirvāṇa Sūtra (Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra) Volume I, (Taishō Volume 12, Number 374), dBET PDF Version, Moraga, California: BDK America, Inc.,, accessed 2019-08-18. Scrolls 1-10.
  9. Bodhi. 2012. The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Complete Translation of the Anguttara Nikayai>. Simon and Schuster.
  10. Broughton, Jeffrey L 2014, The Chan Whip Anthology: A Companion to Zen Practice, Oxford University Press.
  11. Buddhadatta, A. P. 1958. Concise Pāli-English Dictionary. Colombo: Colombo Apothecaries’ Co., Chinese translation at
  12. Bunce, Fredrick W and Capdi G X 1994, An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints, and Demons with Special Focus on Iconographic Attributes, India, D.K. Printworld.
  13. Buswell, Robert E., and Donald S. Lopez, eds. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
  14. CBETA 1988. Manji Zokuzōkyō 卍續藏經, Kyoto Buddhist Canon Academy 京都藏經書院, (Accessed 2020-12-25).
  15. Chandra, Lokesh and Fredrick W Bunce 2002, The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and other Deities: a Unique Pantheon, India, D.K. Printworld.
  16. Chandra, Lokesh and Sharada Rani  2001, Mudrās in Japan, New Delhi: Vedams Books.
  17. Chegwan and Buddhist Translation Seminar of Hawaii (tr.) 1983. T’ien-t’ai Buddhism: an Outline of the Fourfold Teachings. Daiichi-Shobo, Tokyo. [Translation of T 1931]
  18. Chen, Guansheng, and Peizhu Li, eds. A Chinese-English Dictionary of Buddhist Terms 《中英佛教词典》. Beijing: Foriegn Languages Press 外文出版社, 2005.
  19. Ch’ung-hsien, K’o-ch’in, and Thomas F. Cleary (trans.) 1998, The Blue Cliff Record, Berkeley, California: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research,
  20. Cheung Pui Yiu, Martha and Wusun, L 2014, An Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation (Version 1): From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project, United Kingdom: Taylor and Francis.
  21. Cleary, Thomas 1993 The Flower Ornament Scripture: A Translation of the Avatamsaka Sutra, Boston: Shambhala.
  22. Cleary, J C 1999, 'The Recorded Sayings of Linji,' in Three Chan Classics: The Recorded Sayings of Linji Wumen’s Gate The Faith-Mind Maxim, SDK English Tripitaka 74-1, II, III, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, pp 1-63,
  23. Cleary, Thomas F 2005, Book of Serenity: One Hundred Zen Dialogs, Boulder: Shambhala.
  24. Cock, Francis H. 1999, Three Texts on Consciousness Only, United States: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Online at
  25. Conze, Edward 1958, Buddhist Wisdom Books. Unwin Paperbacks. Translations of the Diamond and Heart sūtras from Sanskrit.
  26. Conze, E., Zaidan, S.G. 1967, Materials for a Dictionary of the Prajnaparamita Literature, Suzuki Research Foundation.
  27. Conze, E. 1973, The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines & its Verse Summary, San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation.
  28. Daitō Shuppansha. 1991. Japanese-English Buddhist Dictionary 《日英佛敎辭典》. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha.
  29. Daoyuan & Randolph Whitfield (tr.) 2015-2020, Record of the Transmission of the Lamp: Volumes 1-8. Germany: BoD – Books on Demand.
  30. Dharma Drum Buddhist College, Database of Modern Chinese Buddhism,
  31. Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts 2014, “DDBC Glossaries Project”, viewed 16 March 2017,
  32. Ding Fubao 丁福保 1922, Dictionary of Buddhist Studies 《佛學大辭典》. China, Zhengwu Press, viewed 15 March 2017,佛學大辭典, headwords at
  33. Edelglass, William, and Jay L Garfield. 2009. Buddhist philosophy: essential readings. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  34. Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar And Dictionary. Motil Al Barnarsidas, Delhi, 1953.
  35. Eitel, Ernest John. 1904. Hand-Book of Chinese Buddhism: Being a Sanskrit-Chinese Dictionary, with Vocabularies of Buddhist Terms in Pali, Singhalese, Siamese, Burmesi, Tibetan, Mongolian and Japanese. 2nd ed. Tokyo: Lane, Crawford & Company.
  36. Fang Guangchang 2020, “Chinese Buddhist Canon: Approaches to its Compilation,” In Darui Long and Jinhua Chen (eds) Chinese Buddhist Canons in the Age of Printing, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, pp. 89-106.
  37. Fayun, Fanyi Mingyi Daji 翻譯名義大集, Kyoto University, 1916, reproduction of historic text with scan published by Buddhist Digital Resource Center at!rid=O4JW5431%!C(MISSING)O4JW54314JW27685$W1KG4598, accessed 2021-02-25.
  38. Fazang and Vorenkamp, D 2004, An English Translation Of Fa-Tsang’s Commentary On The Awakening Of Faith. Edwin Mellen Press, New York.
  39. Fogel, Joshua A. 2013, "Sino-Japanese Shipping Connections as Reported in Chinese and Japanese Sources," Sino-Japanese Studies, Vol. 20 (2013),
  40. Giebel, Rolf W. 2001, Two Esoteric Sutras: The Adamantine Pinnacle Sutra and The Susiddhikara Sutra, Translated from the Chinese (Taishō Volume 18, Number 865, 893), BDK English Tripiṭaka Series, BDK America, Inc.,
  41. Giebel, Rolf W. 2005, Vairocanāsaṃbodhi Sūtra: Translated from the Chinese (Taishō Volume 18, Number 848), BDK English Tripiṭaka Series, BDK America, Inc.,
  42. Goble, G. C. 2019, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism: Amoghavajra, the Ruling Elite, and the Emergence of a Tradition, Play E-Book, United States: Columbia University Press.
  43. Grimes, John A 1996, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. New and revised ed. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  44. Guan Zefu 關則富 2016, Notes on Pali Buddhist Scriptures 巴利語佛經譯注 增支部(一), Taiwan: Linking Publishing Company, in Chinese.
  45. Heine, Steven 2016, Chan Rhetoric of Uncertainty in the Blue Cliff Record: Sharpening a Sword at the Dragon Gate, New York: Oxford University Press.
  46. Heng-ching Shih and Dan Lusthaus 2001, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Heart Sutra, translated from the Chinese of K’uei-chi (Taisho Volume 33, Number 1710), BDK English Tripitaka 66-1, Berkeley, California: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, at
  47. Hirakawa, Akira. 1997. Buddhist Chinese-Sanskrit Dictionary. Tokyo: The Reiyukai.
  48. Ichimura, Shohei 2015, The Canonical Book of the Buddha’s Lengthy Discourses, Volume I, (Taishō Volume 1, Number 1), translated from the Chinese, BDK English Tripiṭaka Series, Moraga, California: Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai, at
  49. Ichishima, Masao, and David W. Chappell, trans. 2013, “A Guide to the Tiantai Fourfold Teachings,” In Tien-Tai Lotus Texts by Chamberlain-Nyudo Sylvain (Ed.), 153–210. Berkeley, CA: Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai,
  50. Inagaki, Hisao, and Harold Stewart 1995, The three Pure Land Sutras, Berkeley, CA: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research.
  51. Inagaki, Hisao, and P. G. O’Neill 2007, A Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist Terms. Stone Bridge Press.
  52. Jungmann B, Dana Arnold, J. P. Park, and Juhyung Rh 2020, A Companion to Korean Art, Wiley.
  53. Kaneko, Yoshio. 2000. A Study of the Biography of Sakya-muni (Gotama Buddha) Based on the Early Buddhist Scriptural Sources (Nikāyas, Āgamas and Vinayas). Tokyo: Central Scientific Research Institute 中央学術研究所.
  54. Karashima, Seishi 1994, A study of the language of the Dīrgha-āgama 「長阿含経」の原語の研究, The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, at, accessed 2021-03-19.
  55. Karashima, Seishi 1998, A Glossary of Dharmarakṣa's translation of the Lotus Sutra, The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, at, accessed 2021-03-19.
  56. Karashima, Seishi 2001, A Glossary of Kumārajīva’s Translation of the Lotus Sutra, PDF, The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, Tokyo,, accessed 2021-03-19.
  57. Karashima, Seishi 2010, A Glossary of Lokakṣema's Translation of the Astāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā, PDF, The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, Tokyo,, accessed 2021-03-19.
  58. Kieschnick, John and Simon Wiles 2017, A Primer in Chinese Buddhist Writings, Volume One: Foundations, Stanford, California: Stanford University,
  59. Kumārajīva, Tsugunari Kubo, Akira Yuyama (tr) 2007, The Lotus Sutra (BDK English Tripitaka), Bdk English Tripitaka Translation Series, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, 2nd edition, Berkeley, California: BDK America, online at
  60. Lagerwey, J 2014, Modern Chinese Religion: Song-Liao-Jin-Yuan (960-1368 AD), (2 Vols), Netherlands: Brill.
  61. Lancaster, Lewis R. 1968. “An Analysis of the Aṣṭasāhasrikāprajn̄āpārmitāsūtra from the Chinese Translations.” PhD Thesis, University of Michigan.
  62. Lancaster, L.R., 2004. The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue,
  63. Lao She, 2003. Luotuo Xiangzi 骆驼祥子, Illustrated ed., The People’s Literature Publishing House 人民文学出版社, Beijing.
  64. Leeming, David Adams. 2001. A Dictionary of Asian Mythologyi>. Oxford University Press.
  65. Li Fahua 2020, “An Analysis of the Content and Characteristics of the Chinese Buddhist Canon,” In Darui Long and Jinhua Chen (eds) Chinese Buddhist Canons in the Age of Printing, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, pp. 52-77.
  66. Loori, J. D. 2002, Riding the Ox Home: Stages on the Path of Enlightenment, United States: Shambhala.
  67. Lou, Yulie 2015, Buddhism, Leiden; Boston: Brill.
  68. Luk, Charles, 2002, Ordinary enlightenment: a translation of Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, Boston: Shambhala. The author is also known as Lu, Kʻuan Yü
  69. Mahāñāṇo, Bhikkhu. 2004. Ba Han Cidian 《巴汉词典》.
  70. Matsuo, Kenji 2007, A History of Japanese Buddhism, United Kingdom: Global Oriental.
  71. He, Mei 2020, “Features and Significance of Compiling of the Newly Collated and Annotated Catalog of the Buddhist Canon,” In Darui Long and Jinhua Chen (eds) Chinese Buddhist Canons in the Age of Printing, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, pp. 152-170.
  72. Mittal, Sushil, and Thursby, Gene. Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
  73. Miyata, Taisen 2015, “Sutra of the Vow of Fulfilling the Great Perpetual Enjoyment and Benefiting All Sentient Beings Without Exception,” in Mayeda, Sengaku Ed., Esoteric Texts, BDK English Tripiṭaka Series, Moraga, California: Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai America, Inc., pp. 3-28, at
  74. Monier Williams, 1899. Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary.Clarendon Press, Oxford. Accessed March 2, 2014.
  75. Muller, Edward. 1888. “Pali Proper Names.” Journal of the Pali Text Society., Accessed 2016, June 6.
  76. Muller, A. Charles 1999, The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment: Korean Buddhism’s Guide to Meditation (with Commentary by the Son Monk Kihwa), SUNY Press: Albany, New York.
  77. Murano, Senchu (tr.) & Warner, Shinkyo (ed.) 2013, The Lotus Sutra: The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Dharma, Nichiren Buddhist International Center, Kindle ed.
  78. Nanjio, Bunyiu 1883, A Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, the Sacred Canon of the Buddhists in China and Japan, Clarendon Press, Oxford,
  79. Nyanatiloka Thera. 1980. Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines.i> 4th ed. Kandy, Srilanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
  80. “Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary.” Accessed March 2, 2014.
  81. Pittman, Don Alvin 2001, Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu’s Reforms, University of Hawaii Press.
  82. Powers, J 2007, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, New York and Boulder, Colorado: Snow Lion Publications.
  83. Poceski, M 2015, The Records of Mazu and the Making of Classical Chan Literature, Kindle. ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York.
  84. Red Pine 2009, The Diamond Sutra: Text and Commentaries Translated from Sanskrit and Chinese, Kindle ed. United Kingdom: Counterpoint.
  85. Red Pine 2012, The Lankavatara Sutra: Translation And Commentary, Kindle ed., Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint.
  86. Ritzinger, J 2017. Anarchy in the Pure Land: Reinventing the Cult of Maitreya in Modern Chinese Buddhism, Oxford University Press.
  87. “Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit.” Accessed March 2, 2014.
  88. Sharf, R 2005, Coming to Terms with Chinese Buddhism: A Reading of the Treasure Store Treatise, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.
  89. Sharf, Robert H 2017, “Buddhist Veda and the Rise of Chan,” in Chinese and Tibetan Esoteric Buddhismi>, edited by Yael Bentor and Meir Shahar, Leiden: Brill, pp. 85–120.
  90. Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, 1991, 1st ed., Shambhala ; Distributed in the U.S. by Random House, Boston : New York.
  91. Sheng, K 2020, A History of Chinese Buddhist Faith and Lifei>, Netherlands: Brill.
  92. Shinohara, K. 2014, Spells, Images, and Mandalas: Tracing the Evolution of Esoteric Buddhist Ritualsi>, Play E-Book, United Kingdom: Columbia University Press.
  93. Silk, Jonathan A, 2008 “The Jifayue sheku tuoluoni jing–Translation, non-translation, both or neither?” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, pp. 369-420, at
  94. Soothill, WE & LA Hodous 1937, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co. Ltd.
  95. Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada. 1998. The Seeker's Glossary: Buddhism. New York: Sutra Translation Committee of the U.S. & Canada.
  96. Suttacentral,, accessed 2017-12-09.
  97. Swanson, Paul 1989 Foundations of T'ien-tai Philosophy: The Flowering of the Two Truths Theory in Chinese Buddhism, Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, United States.
  98. Takakusu Junjiro (Ed.) 1988. Taishō shinshū Daizōkyō 《大正新脩大藏經》, Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō Kankōkai, (Accessed 2016-07-04). Specific manuscripts listed in corpus, cross referenced with English translations.
  99. Tucci, Giuseppe 1986, Minor Buddhist Text, India: Motilal Banarsidass, online at, Translation of Verse in Praise of the Diamond Sūtra (T 1511 and T 1514) from Chinese, Sanskrit, and Tibetan.
  100. Van Hien Study Group 2003, The seeker's glossary: Buddhism. New York: Sutra Translation Committee of the U.S. & Canada.
  101. Walshe, Maurice. 2005. The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya. Simon and Schuster.
  102. Watson, B 1993, The Lotus Sutra, Columbia University Press.
  103. Watson, Burton 1997, The Vimalakirti Sutra, New York: Columbia University Press.
  104. Welch, Holmes 1967, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism, 1900-1950. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  105. Welter, Albert 2011, Yongming Yanshou’s Conception of Chan in the Zongjing Lu: A Special Transmission Within the Scriptures, New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
  106. Whitfield, Randolf S tr. 2015, Records of Transmission of the Lamp (Jingde Chuandeng Lu): Volume 1, The Buddhas and Indian Patriarchs, by Daoyuan, edited by Yang Yi, Germany: Hokun Trust.
  107. Whitney, WD, 1885, The Roots, Verb-Forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language. London: Breitkopf and Hartel.
  108. Wick, GS 2005, The book of equanimity: Illuminating Classic Zen Koans, Boston: Simon and Schuster.
  109. Willemen, C. 2009 Buddhacarita in Praise of Buddha's Acts, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Berkeley, United States.
  110. Wu, J 2016 "The Chinese Buddhist Canon Through the Ages: Essential Categories and Critical Issues in the Study of a Textual Tradition,"" in: Jiang Wu and Lucille Chia, Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon, Kindle ed, Columbia University Press, New York.
  111. Xiao, Yue 2018, “An Annotated English Translation of the Twenty-four Vows in the Wuliang Qingjing Pingdengjue Jing,” International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture, Vol. 28, No.2 (December 2018), pp. 177–203, Academy of Buddhist Studies, Dongguk University, Korea.
  112. Xuanzang and Rongxi Li (trans) 1996, The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Moraga, California: BDK America, Inc.
  113. Yamamoto, K., 1974. The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana-sutra: a complete translation from the classical Chinese language in 3 volumes, Karinbunko.
  114. Yifa, M. C. Owens, P. M. Romaskiewicz 2006, Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sūtra, Buddha's Light Publishing,
  115. Yifa 2002, The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.
  116. Yinshun 2009, A Sixty-Year Spiritual Voyage on the Ocean of Dharma, Noble Path Buddhist Education Fellowship.
  117. Yinshun, Shi Huifeng (tr.) 2016, An Investigation into Emptiness: Parts One & Two. Towaco, NJ: Noble Path Buddhist Education Fellowship Incorporated.
  118. Yixuan and Thomas Yūhō Kirchner 2009, The Record of Linji, University of Hawaii Press.
  119. Yongyou Shi 2010, The Diamond Sutra in Chinese Culture, Los Angeles: Buddha's Light Publishing.
  120. Yuanwu, Cleary TF (tr.), and Cleary JC (tr.) 2013, The Blue Cliff Record, Kindle. ed., Shambhala; Distributed by Random House, Boulder, Colo.; New York.
  121. Zhang, Bo-Yong, and Grace Ge. 2002. "Place Authority Database" 《地名規範資料庫》. Dharma Drum Buddhist College, viewed 11 March 2017,
  122. Zhang, Bo-Yong, and Grace Ge. 2008. "Person Authority Database" 《人名規範資料庫》. Dharma Drum Buddhist College,
  123. Ziporyn, Brook A. 2016. Emptiness and Omnipresence: An Essential Introduction to Tiantai Buddhism. Indiana University Press.


Pinyin   English