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Diamond Sūtra 《金剛般若波羅蜜經》

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須菩提云何須陀洹: 『須陀洹果。』?」 須菩提:「世尊何以須陀洹名為入流須陀洹。」

Yifa: “Subhuti, what does your mind say? Is a srotapanna able to have this thought, ‘I have obtained the fruit of a srotapanna,’ or not?”

Subhuti replied, “No, World-Honored One. Why is this? Srotapannas are named for entering the stream, yet there is no place to enter. Nor is there entering sight, sound, scent, taste, touch or thought. So they are called srotapannas.”

Sanskrit: tatkiṃ manyase subhūte api nu srotaāpannasyaivaṃ bhavati-mayā srotaāpattiphalaṃ prāptamiti? subhūtirāha-no hīdaṃ bhagavan| na srotaāpannasyaivaṃ bhavati-mayā srotaāpattiphalaṃ prāptamiti| tatkasya hetoḥ ? na hi sa bhagavan kaṃciddharmamāpannaḥ, tenocyate srotaāpanna iti| na rūpamāpanno na śabdān na gandhān na rasān na spraṣṭavyān dharmānāpannaḥ| tenocyate srotaāpanna iti| sacedbhagavan srotaāpannasyaivaṃ bhavet- mayā srotaāpattiphalaṃ prāptamiti, sa eva tasyātmagrāho bhavet, sattvagrāho jīvagrāhaḥ pudgalagrāho bhavediti||

In Section 7 the Buddha mentioned noble ones (Sanskrit: āryapudgala). Now he gives more details about the different kinds of noble ones.

A Srotaāpanna (Chinese 須陀洹), also called a stream (Sanskrit: srotas, Chinese: ) enterer (Sanskrit: āpanna, Chinese: ), has attained the first of the four stages in the Arhat path to enlightenment.1

The English word "fruit" translates the Chinese , Sanskrit phala. Fruit is a frequent analogy for the result of practice. We can tell that the Sanskrit words bhavati (become) and prāptamiti (obtain) apply to the Srotaāpanna because the suffix ti indicates that they are in the third person. [Egenes 2011, p5] prāptamiti is a compound that combines prāpta (obtain) + iti (to say).

The English word "sounds" translates the Chinese (Sanskrit: śabda), "scents" translates the Chinese (Sanskrit: gandha), "tastes" translates the Chinese (Sanskrit: rasa), and "touch" translates the Chinese (Sanskrit: spraṣṭavya).

In the Cakkhu Sutta the Buddha explains how someone can become a Srotaāpanna,

At Savatthi. "Monks, the eye is inconstant, changeable, alterable. The ear... The nose... The tongue... The body... The mind is inconstant, changeable, alterable.

"One who has conviction & belief that these phenomena are this way is called a faith-follower: one who has entered the orderliness of rightness, entered the plane of people of integrity, transcended the plane of the run-of-the-mill. He is incapable of doing any deed by which he might be reborn in hell, in the animal womb, or in the realm of hungry shades. He is incapable of passing away until he has realized the fruit of stream-entry.
(SN 25.12)


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須菩提云何斯陀含:『斯陀含果。』?」 須菩提:「世尊何以斯陀含一往往來斯陀含。」

Yifa: “Subhuti, what does your mind say? Is a sakrdagamin able to have this thought, ‘I have obtained the fruit of a sakrdagamin,’ or not?”

Subhuti replied, “No, World-Honored One. Why is this? Sakrdagamins are named for returning once more, yet in reality there is no more returning. So they are called sakrdagamins.”

Sanskrit: bhagavānāha- takiṃ manyase subhūte api nu sakṛdāgāmina evaṃ bhavati-mayā sakṛdāgāmiphalaṃ prāptamiti ? subhūtirāha-no hīdaṃ bhagavan| sa sakṛdāgāmina evaṃ bhavati-mayā sakṛdāgāmiphalaṃ prāptamiti| tatkasya hetoḥ ? na hi sa kaściddharmo yaḥ sakṛdāgāmitvamāpannaḥ| tenocyate sakṛdāgāmīti||

Comments


A sakṛdāgāmin (Chinese 斯陀含) has attained the second of the four stages in the Arhat path to enlightenment.2

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須菩提云何阿那含:『阿那含果。』?」須菩提:「世尊何以阿那含名為是故阿那含。」 

Yifa: “Subhuti, what does your mind say? Is the anagamin able to have this thought, ‘I have obtained the fruit of an anagamin,’ or not?”

Subhuti replied, “No, World-Honored One. Why is this? Anagamins are named for not returning, yet in reality there is no returning. Therefore they are called anagamins”

Sanskrit: bhagavānāha-tatkiṃ manyase subhūte api nu anāgāmina evaṃ bhavati-mayānāgāmiphalaṃ prāptamiti ? subhūtirāha-no hīdaṃ bhagavan| na anāgāmina evaṃ bhavati-mayā anāgāmiphalaṃ prāptamiti| tatkasya hetoḥ ? na hi sa bhagavan kaściddharmo yo'nāgāmitvamāpannaḥ| tenocyate anāgāmīti||

Comments


The Sanskrit word anāgāmin (Chinese 阿那含) means once returner. An Anāgāmin has attained the third of the four stages in the Arhat path to enlightenment.

Text


須菩提云何阿羅漢:『阿羅漢。』?」須菩提:「世尊何以無有法名阿羅漢世尊阿羅漢:『阿羅漢。』即為眾生世尊佛說得無三昧人中第一第一離欲阿羅漢:『離欲阿羅漢。』世尊:『阿羅漢。』世尊須菩提阿蘭那行者須菩提所行須菩提阿蘭那。」

Yifa: “Subhuti, what does your mind say? Is an arhat able to have this thought, ‘I have obtained the Way of an arhat’, or not?”

Subhuti replied, “No, World-Honored One. Why is this? In reality there is no dharma called an arhat. World-Honored One, if arhats had this thought, ‘I have obtained the Way of an arhat,’ then they would become attached to a self, an individual, sentient beings or lifespan.”

“World-Honored One, the Buddha says I have attained the non-confronting samadhi, am first and foremost among men, the foremost arhat freed from desire. I do not have this thought, ‘I am an arhat freed from desire.’”

“World-Honored One, if I had this thought, ‘I have obtained the Way of an arhat,’ then the World- Honored One would not have said, ‘Subhuti is the one who enjoys aranya practice.’

Since, in reality, Subhuti has nothing to practice, therefore he is called, ‘Subhuti, the one who enjoys aranya practice.’”

Sanskrit: bhagavānāha- tatkiṃ manyase subhūte api nu arhata evaṃ bhavati-mayā arhattvaṃ prāptamiti ? subhūtirāha-no hīdaṃ bhagavan| nārhata evaṃ bhavati-mayā arhattvaṃ prāptamiti| tatkasya hetoḥ ? na hi sa bhagavan kaściddharmo yo'rhannāma| tenocyate-arhanniti| sacedbhagavan arhata evaṃ bhavet-mayā arhattvaṃ prāptamiti, sa eva tasyātmagrāho bhavet, sattvagrāho jīvagrāhaḥ pudgalagrāho bhavet| tatkasya hetoḥ ? ahamasmi bhagavaṃstathāgatenārhatā samyaksaṃbuddhena araṇāvihāriṇāmagryo nirdiṣṭaḥ| ahamasmi bhagavan arhan vītarāgaḥ| na ca me bhagavannevaṃ bhavati- arhannasmyahaṃ vītarāga iti| sacenmama bhagavannevaṃ bhavet-mayā arhattvaṃ prāptamiti, na māṃ tathāgato vyākariṣyadaraṇāvihāriṇāmagryaḥ subhūtiḥ kulaputro na kvacidviharati, tenocyate araṇāvihārī araṇāvihārīti||9||

Comments


An arhat has acheived englightenment and will not return in a future life. In the Yuganaddha Sutta the Buddha says that a monk or nun becomes an arhat (Pali: arahant) by abandoning his fetters and destroying his obsessions by one of the four paths: (1) developing insight preceded by tranquillity, (2) developing tranquillity preceded by insight, (3) developing tranquillity in tandem with insight, or (4) focussing his mind steady inwardly so that it settles down, and becomes unified, and concentrated. [AN 4.170 Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) 2010] This helps to explain why an Arhat cannot be an Arhat if she or he is attached to the notion of being an Arhat.

In the Sanksrit text the compound word arhattvaṃ is used four times. This is the accusative form of a compound formed from the two parts arhat + tvam (you) with sandhi applied.

At the end of this passage the Chinese and Sanksrit versions mention practicing in a forest or wilderness location called araṇya in Sanskrit (Chinese: 阿蘭那). This is a peaceful and quite place suitable for a monastic to practice and live. Living or frequently practicing at an araṇya location is one of the Twelve Ascetic Practices (Chinese: 十二頭陀行), which is what is referred to in the text. [Fo Guang Shan Dictionary]

In the Jinna Sutta Kassapa explains to the Buddha why he enjoys forest practice,

"Lord, I see two compelling reasons that for a long time I have lived in the wilderness and have extolled living in the wilderness... that I have kept my persistence aroused and have extolled having persistence aroused: seeing a pleasant abiding for myself in the here & now, and feeling sympathy for later generations ...

"Good, Kassapa. Very good. It seems that you are one who practices for the happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, & happiness of beings human & divine. So continue wearing your robes of cast off hemp cloth, go for alms, and live in the wilderness."
(SN 16.53)


Notes

  1. Buswell and Lopez 2014, entry on srotaāpanna
  2. "Cakkhu Sutta: The Eye" (SN 25.1), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 23 April 2012, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn25/sn25.001.than.html.
  3. Buswell and Lopez 2014, entry on sakṛdāgāmin
  4. "Jinna Sutta: Old" (SN 16.5), translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn16/sn16.005.than.html.

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