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Diamond Sūtra 《金剛般若波羅蜜經》

Ultimately without self 究竟無我分

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Ultimately without self 究竟無我


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爾時須菩提白佛:「世尊善男子善女人發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心云何應住云何降伏?」須菩提:「善男子善女人阿耨多羅三藐三菩提如是: 『滅度一切眾生滅度一切眾生無有眾生滅度。』何以須菩提菩薩我相人相眾生相壽者相菩薩所以須菩提無有阿耨多羅三藐三菩提

At that time, Subhūti addressed the Buddha, saying, “Bhagavān, when good men [kulaputra] and good women [kuladuhitā] develop the mind of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi, how should their minds [citta] dwell [sthātavya]? How should they pacify their minds [citta]?” The Buddha told Subhūti, “Good men [kulaputra] and good women [kuladuhitā] develop Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi by giving rise to a mind thusly: ‘I will liberate all [sarve] sentient beings. Yet when all sentient beings have been liberated, then truly not even a single sentient being has been liberated.’ Why? Subhūti, a bodhisattva who has a notion [saṃjñā] of a self, a notion [saṃjñā] of a person [pudgala], a notion [saṃjñā] of a being, or a notion [saṃjñā] of a life [jīva], is not a bodhisattva. Why is this so? Subhūti, there is actually no dharma of one who [yo] develops Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi.

Sanskrit: atha khalvāyuṣmān subhūtirbhagavantametadavocat-kathaṃ bhagavan bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthitena sthātavyam, kathaṃ pratipattavyam, kathaṃ cittaṃ pragrahītavyam ? bhagavānāha-iha subhūte bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthitena evaṃ cittamutpādayitavyam-sarve sattvā mayā anupadhiśeṣe nirvāṇadhātau parinirvāpayitavyāḥ| evaṃ sa sattvān parinirvāpya na kaścitsattvaḥ parinirvāpito bhavati| tatkasya hetoḥ ? sacetsubhūte bodhisattvasya sattvasaṃjñā pravarteta, na sa bodhisattva iti vaktavyaḥ| jīvasaṃjñā vā yāvatpudgalasaṃjñā vā pravarteta, na sa bodhisattva iti vaktavyaḥ| tatkasya hetoḥ ? nāsti subhūte sa kaściddharmo yo bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthito nāma||

Comments


This section addresses the same question as Subhūti aksed in Section 2 but here the Buddha elaborates further compared with his answer in Section 3. In his commentary on the Diamond Sūtra Hui Neng says

They eliminate thoughts of subject and object; they eliminate the thought that there are other beings and also eliminate the thought that a self exists.
(Red Pine 2009, p 288 translating Hui Neng Exegesis on the Diamond Sutra 金剛經解義, Manji 0459)

The Sanskrit text reads even [yāvat] the notion of a self, placing additional emphasis on this point.

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須菩提云何如來然燈佛有法阿耨多羅三藐三菩提?」「世尊然燈佛無有阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。」

“What do you think? When the Tathāgata was with Dīpaṃkara Buddha, was there any dharma of the attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi?” “No, Bhagavān, and thus do I explain the actual meaning [artha] of the Buddha’s teachings: when the Buddha was with Dīpaṃkara Buddha, there was truly no dharma of the attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi.”

Sanskrit: tatkiṃ manyase subhūte asti sa kaściddharmo yastathāgatena dīpaṃkarasya tathāgatasyāntikādanuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhimabhisaṃbuddhaḥ ? evamukte āyuṣmān subhūtirbhagavantametadavocat- yathāhaṃ bhagavato bhāṣitasyārthamājānāmi, nāsti sa bhagavan kaściddharmo yastathāgatena dīpaṃkarasya tathāgatasyārhataḥ samyaksaṃbuddhasyāntikādanuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhimabhisaṃbuddhaḥ|

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佛言: 「如是如是須菩提無有如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提須菩提有法如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提然燈佛受記:『來世作佛釋迦牟尼。』

The Buddha said, “Thusly, thusly, Subhūti! There was no dharma of the Tathāgata’s attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi. Subhūti, if there were a dharma of the Tathāgata’s attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi, then Dīpaṃkara Buddha would not have given me the prediction, ‘In the next era you will become [bhaviṣyasi] a buddha named Śākyamuni.’ It is because [yasmāttarhi] there was no dharma of the attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi, that Dīpaṃkara Buddha gave me this prediction by saying, ‘In the next era you will become a buddha named [nāma] Śākyamuni.’

Sanskrit: evamukte bhagavānāyuṣmantaṃ subhūtimetadavocat-evametatsubhūte, evametat| nāsti subhūte sa kaściddharmo yastathāgatena dīpaṃkarasya tathāgatasyārhataḥ samyaksaṃbuddhasyāntikādanuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhimabhisaṃbuddhaḥ| sacetpunaḥ subhūte kaściddharmastathāgatenābhisaṃbuddho'bhaviṣyat, na māṃ dīpaṃkarastathāgato vyākariṣyat-bhaviṣyasi tvaṃ māṇava anāgate'dhvani śākyamunirnāma tathāgato'rhan samyaksaṃbuddha iti| yasmāttarhi subhūte tathāgatenārhatā samyaksaṃbuddhena nāsti sa kaściddharmo yo'nuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhimabhisaṃbuddhaḥ, tasmādahaṃ dīpaṃkareṇa tathāgatena vyākṛta- bhaviṣyasi tvaṃ māṇava anāgate'dhvani śākyamunirnāma tathāgato'rhan samyaksaṃbuddha|

Comments


The English word meaning translates the Chinese , Sanskrit artha. The English word named translates the Chinese , Sanskrit nāma. The Sanskrit phrase evamukte means 'this having been said' does not appear in Chinese text but it does appear in this and other Sanskrit versions. Most Chinese versions other than Kumārajīva leave it out. (Red Pine 2009, p 292)

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何以如來諸法。 「有人: 『如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。』須菩提無有阿耨多羅三藐三菩提

Why? ‘Tathāgata’ has the meaning of the suchness of dharmas. Subhūti, if someone says, ‘The Tathāgata has attained Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi,’ there is no dharma of a buddha’s attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi.

Sanskrit: tatkasya hetoḥ ? tathāgata iti subhūte bhūtatathatāyā etadadhivacanam| tathāgata iti subhūte anutpādadharmatāyā etadadhivacanam| tathāgata iti subhūte dharmocchedasyaitadadhivacanam| tathāgata iti subhūte atyantānutpannasyaitadadhivacanam| tatkasya hetoḥ ? eṣa subhūte anutpādo yaḥ paramārthaḥ| yaḥ kaścitsubhūte evaṃ vadet-tathāgatenārhatā samyaksaṃbuddhena anuttarā samyaksaṃbodhirabhisaṃbuddheti, sa vitathaṃ vadet| abhyācakṣīta māṃ sa subhūte asatodgṛhītena| tatkasya hetoḥ- ? nāsti subhūte sa kaściddharmo yastathāgatena anuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhimabhisaṃbuddhaḥ|

Comments


In this passage the Sanskrit term used is bhūtatathatāyā, which means truly real. (Red Pine 2009, p 297) It is translated into the Chinese and English in a round-about way. The Sanskrit version contains some addition text saying that if someone claimed this about the Tathagata it would be false (sa vitathaṃ vadet).

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須菩提如來所得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提於是是故如來:『一切法佛法。』須菩提一切法一切法是故一切法。「須菩提譬如人身長大。」 須菩提:「世尊如來人身長大大身大身。」

“Subhūti, the true attainment by the Tathāgata of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi is neither substantial nor void [mṛṣā], and for this reason the Tathāgata says, ‘All dharmas [sarvadharmā] are the Buddha Dharma.’ Subhūti, all dharmas spoken of are actually not all dharmas, and are thus called all dharmas. Subhūti, this is like the body [kāya] of a person that is tall and great.” Subhūti said, “Bhagavān, the body of a person that the Tathāgata speaks of, tall and great, is not a great body [akāyaḥ], and is thus called [nāma] the Great Body [mahākāya].”

Sanskrit: yaśca subhūte tathāgatena dharmo'bhisaṃbuddho deśito vā tatra na satyaṃ na mṛṣā| tasmāttathāgato bhāṣate-sarvadharmā buddhadharmā iti| tatkasya hetoḥ ? sarvadharmā iti subhūte adharmāstathāgatena bhāṣitāḥ| tasmāducyante sarvadharmā buddhadharmā iti||

atha khalvāyuṣmān subhūtirbhagavantametadavocat-kathaṃ bhagavan bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthitena sthātavyam, kathaṃ pratipattavyam, kathaṃ cittaṃ pragrahītavyam ? bhagavānāha-iha subhūte bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthitena evaṃ cittamutpādayitavyam-sarve sattvā mayā anupadhiśeṣe nirvāṇadhātau parinirvāpayitavyāḥ| evaṃ sa sattvān parinirvāpya na kaścitsattvaḥ parinirvāpito bhavati| tatkasya hetoḥ ? sacetsubhūte bodhisattvasya sattvasaṃjñā pravarteta, na sa bodhisattva iti vaktavyaḥ| jīvasaṃjñā vā yāvatpudgalasaṃjñā vā pravarteta, na sa bodhisattva iti vaktavyaḥ| tatkasya hetoḥ ? nāsti subhūte sa kaściddharmo yo bodhisattvayānasaṃprasthito nāma||

Sanskrit: tadyathāpi nāma subhūte puruṣo bhavedupetakāyo mahākāyaḥ ? āyuṣmān subhūtirāha- yo'sau bhagavaṃstathāgatena puruṣo bhāṣita upetakāyo mahākāya iti, akāyaḥ sa bhagavaṃstathāgatena bhāṣitaḥ| tenocyate upetakāyo mahākāya iti||

Comments


The Buddha is making an analogy between the Dhárma, or the teachings of the Buddha, and a physical body. He is also making a reference to Puruṣa, as in Section 10, Section 13, and Section 15. In his commentary on the Diamond Sūtra Asaṅga says,

A buddha's dhárma body is like that of Puruṣa, free from all obstructions, an all-pervading body.
(Red Pine 2009, p 301 quoting Asaṅga Neng Duan Jingang Bore Boluome Lunsong, T 1514)

The word 'body' translates the Chinese , Sanskrit kāya. The opposite appearing in the Sanskrit text is akāya, not a body. The phrase 'great body' translates the Chinese 大身, Sanskrit mahākāya.

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須菩提菩薩如是:『滅度無量眾生。』 菩薩何以須菩提無有法名菩薩是故佛說:『一切法無我無人眾生無壽。』須菩提菩薩: 『莊嚴佛土。』菩薩何以如來莊嚴佛土莊嚴莊嚴須菩提菩薩通達無我如來真是菩薩

“Subhūti, for bodhisattvas it is also such as this. If someone says ‘I will liberate and cross over innumerable sentient beings [sattva],’ then this is not one to be called [nāma] a bodhisattva. Why? Subhūti, truly there is no dharma of a bodhisattva, and for this reason the Buddha says, ‘All dharmas are not a self, a person, a being [sattva], or a life.’ Subhūti, if a bodhisattva says, ‘I am adorning buddha-lands,’ then this is not one to be called [nāma] a bodhisattva. Why? The adornments of buddha-lands spoken of by the Tathāgata are not adornments, and are thus called adornments. Subhūti, if a bodhisattva has penetrating realization that dharmas are without self, then the Tathāgata says, ‘This is a true bodhisattva.’

Sanskrit: bhagavānāha -evametatsubhūte| yo bodhisattva evaṃ vadet-ahaṃ sattvān parinirvāpayiṣyāmiti, na sa bodhisattva iti vaktavyaḥ| tatkasya hetoḥ ? asti subhūte sa kaściddharmo yo bodhisattvo nāma ? subhūtirāha-no hīdaṃ bhagavan| nāsti sa kaściddharmo yo bodhisattvo nāma| bhagavānāha- sattvāḥ sattvā iti subhūte asattvāste tathāgatena bhāṣitāḥ, tenocyante sattvā iti| tasmāttathāgato bhāṣate-nirātmānaḥ sarvadharmā nirjīvā niṣpoṣā niṣpudgalāḥ sarvadharmā iti||

Sanskrit: yaḥ subhūte bodhisattva evaṃ vadet- ahaṃ kṣetravyūhānniṣpādayiṣyāmīti, sa vitathaṃ vadet| tatkasya hetoḥ ? kṣetravyūhāḥ kṣetravyūhā iti subhūte avyūhāste tathāgatena bhāṣitāḥ| tenocyante kṣetravyūhā iti||

Sanskrit: yaḥ subhūte bodhisattvo nirātmāno dharmā nirātmāno dharmā ityadhimucyate, tathāgatenārhatā samyaksaṃbuddhena bodhisattvo mahāsattva ityākhyātaḥ||17||

Comments


The English word called translates the Chinese , Sanskrit nāma. As in Section 10 where the English and Chinese read adorn buddha-lands the Sanskrit reads transform worlds, kṣetravyūhā.

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