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Chinese Text Pinyin English Notes
{{word.text}} {{word.text}} {{word.pinyin}} {{word.english}} {{word.notes | limitTo: 100}} ... details All {{word.count}} word senses

  1. adverb not / no
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Negation 否定
    Notes: 不 is used for simple negation, as opposed to 没, which is used for existence. 不 is used before adjectives, adverbs, and verbs, except 有 (Li Shaoqi, 2003, p. 26; Ho, 2002, '不'; NCCED '不' 1). For example, 不知道是怎回事 '[He] did not he did not know how that was possible.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 207) This use is similar in both modern and literary Chinese (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 103). For example, in literary Chinese, 不可,直不百步耳,是亦走也。'They should not do so. Though they did not run a hundred paces, yet they also ran away.' (Meng 1.3/1/26, translation by Legge) The tone is changed to bú when 不 is followed by a syllable with fourth tone, in accordance with tone sandhi 变调. For example, 不去 bú qù 'will not go' (Sun 2006, loc. 545). 不 is the sixth most frequently used word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '不').
  2. adverb expresses that a certain condition cannot be acheived
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Negation 否定
    Notes: In this pattern 不 is used after a verb to form a complement (Li Shaoqi, 2003, p. 27; NCCED '不' 7) For example, 洗不掉 'could not be washed away.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 211).
  3. adverb as a correlative
    Domain: Spoken Language 口语
    Notes: Used to form as a correlative with 就 in the pattern 不 ... 就 (NCCED '不' 9)...
  4. adverb no (answering a question)
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 不 can be used independently to answer a preceding question (Li Shaoqi, 2003, p. 26; NCCED '不' 5).
  5. adverb forms a negative adjective from a noun
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Negation 否定
    Notes: For example, 不运气 'unlucky' (NCCED '不' 4)
  6. adverb at the end of a sentence to form a question
    Domain: Spoken Language 口语
    Notes: In this form 不 is used at the end of the sentence to turn it into a question (NCCED '不' 6).
  7. adverb to form a yes or no question
    Domain: Spoken Language 口语
    Notes: In this form 不 is used to offer an alternative as part of a question (NCCED '不' 8). For example, 商量商量好不好? 'Can we talk about it?' (Lao She, 2003, p. 216)
  8. infix infix potential marker
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Negation 否定
    Notes: 不 is one of the two infixes in Chinese, the other being 得 'can'. For example, 看不见 'cannot see' (Sun 2006, loc. 728).

Contained in

不丹意想不到不但不断不到位不仅不同不得不可抗力不顾不了不禁不仅如此不可逆转不端不暇目不暇接不满不乏不如必不可少不相上下不住不可思议不过源源不断层出不穷不动产不见不是不敌不可不移瞧不起了不起不及不及物动词不定不错不要不用不久对不起不必不大不得不不得了不敢当不管不好意思不论

Usage

Sampled for common words

ExampleSourceOccurrences
玄旨 Scroll 1 in Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 94
世尊 Scroll 2 in Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 77
Scroll 3 in Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 71
專念 Scroll 4 in Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 44
寧可世尊 Scroll 5 in Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 62
Scroll 1 in Sutra of the Seven Buddhas 《七佛經》 17
四大虛幻 Scroll 1 in Vipaśyin Buddha Sūtra 《毘婆尸佛經》 27
疑心 Scroll 2 in Vipaśyin Buddha Sūtra 《毘婆尸佛經》 8
何等年紀 Scroll 1 in Qi Fo Fumu Xing Zi Jing 《七佛父母姓字經》 4
越祇 Scroll 1 in Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《佛般泥洹經》 172
Scroll 2 in Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《佛般泥洹經》 107
譯人東晉 Scroll 1 in Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《般泥洹經》 151
譯人東晉 Scroll 2 in Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《般泥洹經》 85
阿難爾時 Scroll 1 in Mahāparinibbānasutta 《大般涅槃經》 56
歡喜 Scroll 2 in Mahāparinibbānasutta 《大般涅槃經》 56
日來 Scroll 3 in Mahāparinibbānasutta 《大般涅槃經》 39
離散 Scroll 1 in Da Jiangu Poluomen Jing 《大堅固婆羅門緣起經》 5
婆羅門教讀誦典章 Scroll 2 in Da Jiangu Poluomen Jing 《大堅固婆羅門緣起經》 16
人間 Scroll 1 in Ren Xian Jing 《人仙經》 10
堅牢 Scroll 1 in Baiyi Jin Chuang Er Poluomen Yuanqi Jing 《白衣金幢二婆羅門緣起經》 33
日月光明出現 Scroll 2 in Baiyi Jin Chuang Er Poluomen Yuanqi Jing 《白衣金幢二婆羅門緣起經》 28
正行 Scroll 3 in Baiyi Jin Chuang Er Poluomen Yuanqi Jing 《白衣金幢二婆羅門緣起經》 13
散亂 Scroll 1 in Nijutuo Fanzhi Jing 《尼拘陀梵》 38
正分別 Scroll 2 in Nijutuo Fanzhi Jing 《尼拘陀梵》 30
止息 Scroll 1 in Sangītisūtra 《大集法門經》 20