NTI Reader
NTI Reader

  1. noun bitterness / bitter flavor
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Food and Drink 饮食 , Concept: Flavor 味道
    Notes: One of the 五味 'five flavors', the opposite of 甜 'sweetness' (Guoyu '苦' n 1)
  2. noun hardship / suffering
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Emotion 感情
    Notes: For example, the idiom 苦中作乐 'to enjoy in spite of hardship' (Guoyu '苦' n 2; Unihan '苦')
  3. verb to make things difficult for
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 受累 or 为难 (Guoyu '苦' v 1)
  4. noun Sorrow / duḥkha / dukkha / suffering
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: duḥkha, Pāli: dukkha, Japanese: ku. Duḥkha is the unsatisfactory nature inherent in all conditioned phenomena. 苦諦 'The truth of suffering' is the first of the 四聖諦 'four noble truths,' a fundamental teaching of Buddhism (BL 'duḥkha; FGDB '苦').; FGS translation standard: Sorrow
  5. verb to train / to practice
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 磨鍊 (Guoyu '苦' v 2)
  6. verb to suffer from a misfortune
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 患 (Guoyu '苦' v 3)
  7. adjective bitter
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Food and Drink 饮食
    Notes: (Guoyu '苦' adj 1; Unihan '苦')
  8. adjective grieved / facing hardship
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 艰辛; for example, 苦日子 'hard times' (Guoyu '苦' adj 2)
  9. adjective in low spirits / depressed
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 愁闷; for example, 愁眉苦脸 'to look anxious' (Guoyu '苦' adj 3)
  10. adverb assiduously / to do one's best / to strive as much as possible
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 尽力 (Guoyu '苦' adv; Han Dian '苦' adj 7)
  11. adjective painful
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 痛 (Han Dian '苦' adj 4)

Contained in

贫苦苦恼苦难苦集灭道刻苦辛苦艰苦痛苦吃苦苦命困苦穷苦苦海苦行苦力八苦苦行人苦行者受苦苦厄苦寒苦修苦行僧能灭诸苦救度病苦忧苦观受是苦生苦老苦死苦爱别离苦怨憎会苦求不得苦五蕴炽盛苦苦毒苦楚罪苦叫苦愁苦精苦文化苦旅千辛万苦苦叉苦圣谛苦谛苦习圣谛苦集谛苦灭谛苦尽谛苦灭圣谛爱灭苦灭圣谛

Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Abhidharmajñānaprasthānaśāstra (Apidamo Fa Zhi Zu Lun) 《阿毘達磨發智論》 Scroll 16 313
Da Ban Niepan Jing Yi Ji 《大般涅槃經義記》 Scroll 5 263
Notes on the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya 《俱舍論記》 Scroll 22 179
Yogācāryabhūmiśāstra (Yujia Shi Di Lun) 《瑜伽師地論》 Scroll 44 176
Commentary on the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya 《俱舍論疏》 Scroll 22 170
Satyasiddhiśāstra (Cheng Shi Lun / Treatise of Establishing Reality) 《成實論》 Scroll 6 165
Xian Yang Shengjiao Lun 《顯揚聖教論》 Scroll 15 161
Abhidharmajñānaprasthānaśāstra (Apitan Ba Jiandu Lun) 《阿毘曇八犍度論》 Scroll 24 159
Bodhisattvabhūmi (Pusa Xing Chi Jing) 《菩薩地持經》 Scroll 7 154
Catuḥsatyaśāstra (Si Di Lun) 《四諦論》 Scroll 1 153

Collocations

Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
苦灭 苦滅 苦滅 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 2 10
苦阴 苦陰 緣此苦陰 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 1 8
大苦 大苦 是為此大苦陰緣 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 10 7
咸苦 鹹苦 海水鹹苦有三因緣 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 21 6
知苦 知苦 若人不知苦 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 19 6
苦报 苦報 煩惱苦報墮三惡道 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 6 5
忧悲苦 憂悲苦 憂悲苦不如意惱 Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《佛般泥洹經》 Scroll 1 5
苦想 苦想 六者無常苦想 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 2 5
灭苦 滅苦 滅苦離諸惡 Dīrghāgama 《長阿含經》 Scroll 1 4
苦习 苦習 三曰苦習盡滅 Nirvāṇa Sūtra 《般泥洹經》 Scroll 1 4